Award winning criminologist Dr. Gary Kleck, of the Florida State University (FSU), has compiled extensive data from polls and crime statistics. In Analysis of incident files of 1979-1985 National Crime Survey, he published the following:

Attack, Injury and Crime Completion Rates in Robbery Incidents
Based on Method of Self Protection Employed by Victim

Method of           % Completed  % Attacked  % Injured  Num Times
Self Protection                                           Used(a)

Used gun                30.9       25.2         17.4      89,009
Used Knife              35.2       55.6         40.3      59,813
Used other weapon       28.9       41.5         22.0     104,700
Used physical force     50.1       75.6         50.8   1,653,880
Tried to get help
or frighten offender    63.9       73.5         48.9   1,516,141
Threatened or reasoned
with offender           53.7       48.1         30.7     955,398
Nonviolent resistance,
including evasion       50.8       54.7         34.9   1,539,895
Other measures          48.5       47.3         26.5     284,423
Any self-protection     52.1       60.8         38.2   4,603,671
No self-protection      88.5       41.5         24.7   2,686,960

Total                   65.4       53.7         33.2   7,290,631 

Completed = % of time the crime is not interrupted by victim action.
Attacked = % of crimes that proceed sufficiently to involve physical attack on the victim.
Injured = % of crimes in which the victim sustains injury.

Num Times Used = how many crimes involved the given method of self-protection. It adds up to a higher number than the total since often more than one form of resistance is offered.


Attack, Injury and Crime Completion Rates in Assault Incidents
Based on Method of Self Protection Employed by Victim

Method of            % Attacked  % Injured    Estimated
Self Protection                              Num Times Used

Used gun                23.2         12.1       386,083
Used Knife              46.4         29.5       123,062
Used other weapon       41.4         25.1       454,570
Used physical force     82.8         52.1     6,638,823
Tried to get help
or frighten offender    55.2         40.1     4,383,117
Threatened or reasoned
with offender           40.0         24.7     5,743,008
Nonviolent resistance,
including evasion       40.0         25.5     8,935,738
Other measures          36.1         20.7     1,451,103
Any self-protection     49.5         30.7    21,801,957
No self-protection      39.9         27.3     6,154,763

Total                   47.3         29.9    27,956,719

Attacked = % of crimes that proceed sufficiently to involve physical attack on the victim.
Injured = % of crimes in which the victim sustains injury.
Num Times Used = how many crimes involved the given method of self-protection. It adds up to a higher number than the total since often more than one form of resistance is offered.


Notes: "Significantly, Dr. Kleck notes that the victimization surveys actually exaggerated the association of injury with gun-resistance since the surveys generally fail to ask whether the injury occurs after and because of resistance or whether the injury occurred first. In a supplemental questionnaire, however, it was found that most injuries to armed resisters preceded their resistance: "For cases involving robbery and attack, forceful self-protection actions never preceded the attack ... even the minority of the cases where forceful self-protective acts were accompanied by attacks on the victim, few incidents support the contention that the victim's defensive action provoked the attack."

As Dr. Kleck puts it in his study: "When victims use guns to resist crimes, the crimes usually are disrupted and the victims not injured."


For further information visit the Missouri Concealed Carry website at www.moccw.org or send email to .

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